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Sentence Master Games Grammar Glossary

Glossary is an English term.

A glossary is a list of words or phrases used in a particular field with their definitions. Glossaries are often found in texts, journals and academic books as an appendix to the text.

An English grammar glossary is a list of English linguistic and grammatical terms, grammar definitions, explanations, context examples and cross-references to other relevant English grammar terms.

An English dictionary is an alphabetical list of English words giving their definitions, examples and grammatical classification and usually includes phonetic symbols indicating the pronunciation. An English dictionary can also be an alphabetical list with definitions of the key words from a profession or industry like a dictionary of medicine or computing.

An English thesaurus is an English book that organizes English words by categories and concepts, so synonyms, near-synonyms and the opposites antonyms will be grouped together.

You can purchase the Blueprint for English Grammar Summary which contains English language grammar reference information, examples and English vocabulary lists.

The following are a few brief examples of the many English grammar terms.

English words are classified into Eight Parts of Speech

All English words are classified. The term we use to name these classifications is "Parts of Speech". All English words are classified into eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection.

The parts of speech are the building blocks of the English language.

Each English part of speech explains what the word is, how the word is used and the function the word performs. The same English word can perform as a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next sentence.

The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence. A verb or compound verb states something about the subject of the sentence. The verb depicts actions, events, or states of being.

A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, or abstract concepts. A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb.

Pronouns as a part of speech can replace a noun, another pronoun, noun phrases and perform most of the functions of a noun.

An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. Many consider articles: "the, a, an" to be adjectives.

An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a complete clause by indicating manner, time, place, cause, or degree.

A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.

Conjunctions link words, phrases, and clauses.

An interjection is a part of speech used to show or express emotion or illustrate an exclamation.

English grammar rules are the blueprint for constructing English phrases, clauses and sentences.

English Phrases are a word or group of words used as a single value

An English word or group of words used as a single value (without either a subject or predicate) are called phrases. English phrases tend to be larger than individual words and are usually considered as expansions of an individual word. English phrases are smaller than clauses or sentences as they do not have subjects and predicates or subjects and verbs.

Phrase classifications are generally based on the headword, phrase function or phrase construction. We refer to the central element in an English phrase as the head of the phrase. If the head is a noun then the phrase is usually called a noun phrase.

There is some overlap when describing phrases based on either the phrase headword or phrase function. The phrase headword can usually stand alone as a one-word phrase. The headword is the only English word that cannot be omitted from a phrase.

There is some debate classifying phrases. In general these are the phrase types: Noun Phrase, Verb Phrase, Adjective Phrase, Adverb Phrase, Prepositional Phrase, Gerundive Phrase, Participial Phrase, Absolute Phrase, Infinitive Phrase and appositives.

Noun phrases perform the work of a noun in the sentence as subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, complements or objects of prepositions.

The widest definition for verb phrases states their function as predicates of sentences. A narrower definition of 'verb phrase' is the verbal elements: a main verb as the head, auxiliaries, infinitive markers and other verbal particles.

Adjectival phrases are composed of the adjectives and the elements that modify the adjectives. Adjectival phrases can occur inside noun phrases perform as modifiers to a noun phrase or act as complements.

Adverbial phrases of one or more adverbs can modify a verb, adjective, verb phrase, an adjectival phrase or an entire clause.

Prepositional phrases are used either adjectivally to modify nouns or noun phrases that can act as the object or adverbially to modify verbs, adjectives, or clauses.

Gerundive phrases can perform most of the functions of a gerund or verbal noun as subjects, objects, objects of a preposition, or even as adjectives.

Participial phrases always function as adjectives and contains the participle and the object of the participle and any words modified by or related to the participle.

Absolute phrases modify an entire sentence and usually consist of a subject noun phrase, a participial and any modifiers.

The infinitive phrase can perform three functions as a noun, adjective or adverb.

An appositive phrase renames, means the same thing as or further explains another noun or pronoun and are usually placed beside what they rename.

A clause is an organized group of English Words

An English clause is an organized group of English words with a subject and predicate.

A main clause is an independent clause which can stand alone as a complete sentence. Independent clauses also called principal or main clauses can form sentences.

A dependant clause cannot form a sentence. A subordinated clause is a dependent clause and is not complete.

An adverbial clause is a clause that has an adverb-like function in modifying another clause similar to the way adverbs modify verbs. Adverbial clauses can modify an entire independent clause or another subordinate clause to which they might be attached. Adverbial clauses describe time of the event, place of the event, manner of the event, cause of the event or condition for the event.

A relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifies nouns and pronouns. Relative clauses are adjectival and they occur after the modified noun or pronoun. Relative clauses give essential information to define or identify the noun or pronoun.

Nominal clauses function as nouns and may be replaced with a pronoun. Like a noun, a nominal clause names a person, place, thing, or idea. A nominal clause may function in a sentence as a subject, subjective complement, appositive, object of preposition, direct object or indirect object.

A compound sentence contains two or more principal clauses.

A complex sentence contains a principal clause and one or more dependant or subordinate clauses.

A compound sentence can combine with another subordinate clause to form a compound-complex sentence. A compound-complex sentence contains two principal clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.

English sentences are organized groups of English words.

An English sentence is an organized group of English words expressing a complete thought. The two fundamental parts of every English sentence are the subject and predicate. The subject names the topic and the predicate tells about the subject. Subjects can also be described as the component that performs the action as described by the predicate.

To construct a simple English sentence the writer has to create a subject, a predicate and express a complete thought.

The simple formula: Subject + Predicate = SENTENCE

A predicate must have a verb. A verb shows action or state of being. To construct a simple English sentence the writer has to create a subject, place a verb in the predicate and express a complete thought.

A more accurate formula: Subject + Predicate containing a Verb = SENTENCE

An abbreviation is a shortened form of an English word.

An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or expression. Abbreviation is a word created from the Latin word brevis for "short". Usually an abbreviation consists of a letter or group of letters taken from the word or phrase.

As an example, the word "abbreviation" can itself be represented by the abbreviation "abbr"

For the sake of convenience, many British publications have completely done away with the use of periods in all abbreviations.

Publications based in the U.S. tend to follow three different style guides. Some two-word abbreviations, like "United Nations", are abbreviated with uppercase letters and periods, and others, like "personal computer" (PC) and "compact disc" (CD), are not.

In general if the original word was capitalized, then the first letter of its abbreviation should retain the capital, for example Ont. for Ontario. When abbreviating words spelled with lower case letters usually there is no need for capitalization.

Example abbreviations of grammatical terms:

a. = adjective;

adv. = adverb;

imp. = imperfect;

n. = noun;

pass. = passive;

p.p. = past participle; = present participle;

pref. = prefix;

prep. = preposition;

pres. = present;

subj. = subjunctive;

v.i. = intransitive verb;

v.t. = transitive verb.

Special Note for ESL English as a Second Language Teachers

Using the practice word cards in this challenge format is an excellent method of focusing the student's attention on the 28 to 40 words in use. Teachers can confirm that the students know the various functions of the words by parts of speech. Any missing information can be an excellent opportunity for teaching vocabulary, language comprehension and context.

Teachers can use the Sentence Master practice word cards to teach the 1000 most used core English language words and demonstrate the wide variety of context variations used in written English communication.

After the students have mastered the creation of many sentences using the original six word cards - you can replace one or more cards, add some cards or start with six new cards. When students need additional complexity and advanced skills practice there are 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, word challenges and the grid quiz.

Using the practice word cards can help ESL English teachers focus attention, stage the learning step by step, expand vocabulary, teach grammar, context, and comprehension and even have some fun.

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COVID 19 has eliminated most in-person classroom ESL, English & Business English classes.

The online classes can be designed for individual students or groups of students.

Classes use combinations of zoom, whatsapp, facetime, text, voip, email and other platforms.

Students will be level tested to determine what English skills and vocabulary have been acquired and what instruction should be provided.

A study plan and goals will be set for the students or groups.

All online teachers are Canadian certified and experienced teachers.

Students can use their self-isolation and quarantine time to study online.

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